Imperatives grammar

Linking Words and Phrases

Linking words and phrases are used to show a relationships between ideas. They can be used to join 2 or more sentences or clauses (a clause is a group of words which contains a subject and a verb).

Linking words/phrases can be used to add ideas togethercontrast them, or show the reason for something.

Practice your use of linking words with your English Teacher at Skypeclass. 

More information about linking words can be found here.

 

Adding Ideas and Information

Also 
This is used to give more information or ideas. It can be put at the beginning of a sentence, or between the subject and the verb.

We are unable to repair this watch. Also, this is the fourth time this has happened.

I want to be an astronaut. I also want to be a biologist. What should I do?

 

Besides/Besides this/Besides that 
This is usually placed at the beginning of a sentence. It is used to make an additional point.

Traffic congestion is a problem in my city. Besides this, the trains are very expensive.

I can’t afford to go to the concert. Besides, I don’t really like classical music.

 

As well as this/that 
This is very similar to besides/besides this/besides that . It is usually placed at the beginning of a sentence. It is used to make an additional point.

My boss is the only other person who sells the watches. As well as that, he might blame me.

We went to the park today. As well as that, we did some shopping.

 

Showing Reasons

As and since are used to introduce the reason for something. They are similar in meaning and use to ‘because’. They can be placed at the beginning of the sentence, or in the middle.

As 
As 
the watch you have returned is not genuine, we are unable to repair it.

We are unable to repair the watch you have returned as it is not genuine.

 

Since
Since 
the watch you have returned is not genuine, we are unable to repair it.

We are unable to repair the watch you have returned since it is not genuine.

 

Showing Results

Consequently and as a consequence are linking words which link reasons with results. They are common in formal writing.

Consequently 
This is the fourth time that this has happened and, consequently, we can’t accept further watches from you.

This is the fourth time that this has happened. Consequently, we can’t accept further watches from you.

As a consequence
This is the fourth time that this has happened and, as a consequence, we can’t accept further watches from you.

This is the fourth time that this has happened. As a consequence , we can’t accept further watches from you.

 

Contrasting Ideas

Despite and in spite of 
These are followed by nouns or gerunds (verb + ‘ing’). They are notfollowed by clauses (subject + verb).

Despite losing the match, the team were happy with their efforts.

In spite of the lost match , the team were happy. (meaning: they lost the match but they were happy anyway)

If you want to use a clause with despite and in spite of, you need to add ‘the fact that ‘.

Despite the fact that they lost the match, the team were still happy.

In spite of the fact that they lost , the team were still happy.